5 1 Introduction 1 1 Background Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Aspergillus Penicilli- um and Byssochlamys filamentous fungi (moulds) that grow on different types of foods including fruits One of the toxin producing moulds Penicil- lium expansum is a common cause of rot in apples (Harrison 1988) Major The biosynthesis of patulin occurs over a much narrower range of a w than growth of the mould and it is most stable at low pH so the environment of fresh fruit is ideal for its production Penicillium expansum is especially associated with a rapid soft rot of apples and will eventually produce characteristic rings of blue pustules of spores

Molds on Food: Are They Dangerous?

in the air Use plastic wrap to cover foods you want to stay moist — fresh or cut fruits and vegetables and green and mixed salads • Empty opened cans of perishable foods into clean storage containers and refrigerate them promptly • Don't leave any perishables out of the refrigerator more than 2 hours

Patulin is one of the smallest of the group of toxic metabolites known as polyketides The biosynthesis of patulin occurs over a much narrower range of wa than growth of the mould and it is most stable at low pH so the environment of fresh fruit is ideal for its production Magan et al 2004) and Moss (2008) Patulin [4-hydroxy-

The results showed that the recovery rate of patulin in the used method was 83 1% 85% 80 3% for fruit juice and baby food respectively the linearity was (r 2 =0 97) in concentrations (50-250) g/l the limit of detection (LOD) was 30 g/l and the limit of quantitative (LOQ) was 100 g/l

Jun 12 2014As recently as October 2013 articles referenced a Chinese newspaper that accused three major juice manufacturers of purchasing rancid fruit Sources indicate that this could produce a toxin patulin which can survive pasteurization (see "Patulin in Fresh Fruits " page 31)

Jun 12 2014As recently as October 2013 articles referenced a Chinese newspaper that accused three major juice manufacturers of purchasing rancid fruit Sources indicate that this could produce a toxin patulin which can survive pasteurization (see "Patulin in Fresh Fruits " page 31)

Screening for the presence of patulin in molded fresh

A screening for the presence of patulin in molded fresh produce was conducted Patulin was present in 11% of the 8 sweet bell peppers and in 8% of the soft red fruits but not in onions Patulin was also found in tomatoes but could not be detected in derived tomato products When the production process of tomato concentrates was simulated none of the evaluated 10 hypotheses could however

Jun 12 2014As recently as October 2013 articles referenced a Chinese newspaper that accused three major juice manufacturers of purchasing rancid fruit Sources indicate that this could produce a toxin patulin which can survive pasteurization (see "Patulin in Fresh Fruits " page 31)

Patulin is a toxic secondary metabolite fungal species Fungal pathogen Penicillium expansum is a main patulin producer It can enter into the food circulation channel following the fresh fruits and their processing products and cause great harm to human health Patulin has been widely concerned in various countries of the world This paper briefly reviews the physicochemical property and

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of moulds particularly Aspergillus Penicillium and Byssochlamys Often found in rotting apples and apple products patulin can also occur in various mouldy fruits grains and other foods Major human dietary sources of patulin are apples and apple juice made from affected fruit

Abstract Botrytis cinerea is a significant necrotrophic plant pathogen causing devastating diseases on more than 500 plant species especially on fresh fruits and vegetables resulting in the economic losses ranging from $10 billion to $100 billion worldwide This fungal pathogen invades nearly all parts of plants including stems leaves flowers fruits and seeds at both pre-harvest and

Intended use:Molecularly Imprinted Polymer (MIP) columns for use in conjunction with an HPLC for detection of patulin in apple juice and apple pure General information:The procedure is based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) technology which makes the test specific sensitive rapid and simple to perform The columns contain a molecularly imprinted polymer specific to the []

A screening for the presence of patulin in molded fresh produce was conducted Patulin was present in 11% of the sweet bell peppers and in 8% of the soft red fruits but not in onions Patulin was also found in tomatoes but could not be detected in derived tomato products When the production process of tomato concentrates was simulated none of the evaluated hypotheses could however explain

Several clinical studies demonstrated that the ingestion of patulin in fresh fruits or juices is associated with symptoms such as gastrointestinal immunological and neurological disease for human [41] The only know symptom in farm animals from the ingestion of contaminated animal feeds with patulin is hemorrhaging in digestive tract for cattle

codex alimentarius commission

percentage of patulin levels may exceed 25 g/kg For example in the U K despite the decline in patulin levels since the adoption of the 50 g/kg advisory level in 1993 nine percent of the 1998 samples contained 25 g/kg or more patulin Also Sydenham et al (1995) found the patulin level in nonprocessed fruit to be 920 g/kg5 The

detectionof patulin in fruit which externally appears to be unaffected However patulin may occur in fruits after the storage under controlled atmosphere and exposure to the environmental conditions with or without fruit pulp alteration Washing fruit or removing themoldy tissue just before pressing

removed from the ground in order to make sure that only fresh and/or sound fruit is collected 18 Mechanically harvested fruit has to be transported to processing plants within 3 days after harvest 19 All containers used to transport harvested fruit should be clean dry and free of any debris b) Fruit for the fresh fruit market 20

other fruit products prepared from fresh and stored fruits (Order no 163/2006) 2 Materials and methods For determination of patulin content samples of clear apple juice from the market were analyzed The determination of patulin from apple juice was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (Dombrink-Kurtzman 2001) Steps of

Processing Fruits: Science and Technology Second Edition In 2002 the percentage of apples marketed fresh was 63% of the total and 37% was processed Of the processed apples 18% was utilized in juice and cider 13% was canned 3% was dried 2% was frozen and 1% was used in other miscellaneous products such as vinegar wine and jelly

percentage of patulin levels may exceed 25 g/kg For example in the U K despite the decline in patulin levels since the adoption of the 50 g/kg advisory level in 1993 nine percent of the 1998 samples contained 25 g/kg or more patulin Also Sydenham et al (1995) found the patulin level in nonprocessed fruit to be 920 g/kg5 The

Paterson 2006) Patulin is frequently found in apples apple juices and other from apples processed products Patulin was also detected in barley wheat corn pears peaches other fruits and their derived processed products (Frank 1977 Bartolom 1994 Li et al 2007) Initially patulin was described as an antibiotic because of a strong

Patulin Lauren S Jackson and Mary Ann Dombrink-Kurtzman Safety of Minimally Processed Acidified and Fermented Vegetable Products Fred Breidt Jr HACCP: A Process Control Approach for Fruit and Vegetable Safety William C Hurst The Effect of Quality Sorting and Culling on the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Produce Susanne E Keller